Mykola Kornylovych Pymonenko (9 March 1862, Priorka, near Kiev – 26 March 1912, Kiev) was a Ukrainian painter; associated with the Peredvizhniki. He is best known for his urban and rural genre scenes of working-class people.
He died in 1912 after a short, serious illness. He was buried at the Lukyanivka Cemetery, Kyiv. His posthumous exhibition at the Academy of Arts, which took place in early 1913 featured 184 paintings, 419 sketches and 112 pencil drawings. In 1959, a street was named after him and, in 1997, a museum devoted to him was opened in Malyutyanka, a village where he painted during the summers, in the Kiev-Sviatoshyn Raion. Several of his works have alternate versions, often painted years apart.